The hip is a ball and socket joint, with the head of the femur constituting the ball. This articulates with the acetabular fossa, which is the socketed surface of the pelvis. The arrangement allows for a wide degree of motion, but not as much as in the shoulder, which is the other ball and socket joint of the body. The junction between the femur and acetabulum is covered with a thick layer of hyaline articular cartilage that protects the bones from wear and tear. For additional support, the acetabulum is lined with a fibrocartilaginous material referred to as the acetabular labrum. The labrum is susceptible to tears most often resulting from sports injuries that trigger femoral acetabular impingement (FAI). Thus, hip arthroscopy is generally performed in young athletic patients.
The meniscus is a crescent-shaped pad of fibrocartilage located between the femur and the tibia. It acts as a shock absorber and prevents friction between the two bones. It also helps stabilize the knee along with the ligaments and protects the articular cartilage of the knee, aiding in the prevention of degenerative arthritis.
The tendon on the long head of the bicep attaches the bicep muscle to the top of the glenoid fossa. Most bicep tendon injuries occur at the long head due to its proximity to the rotator cuff and the acromion. When the elbow is straight, this long head tendon acts as a secondary stabilizer of the shoulder and therefore strenuous and repeated overhead movements can lead to injury or tearing of the tendon. It is possible for patients to live with a bicep tendon injury or tear but as the level of discomfort increases or the level of functionality decreases, a surgical procedure is necessary.
There are several different graft options that can be used for anterior cruciate ligament/posterior cruciate ligament (ACL/PCL) reconstruction procedures. One of the most traditional methods is the use of bone-to-bone (BTB) grafts, where the ends of the graft contain bone that is then fixed to the femoral and tibial tunnels. The other option for surgeons is to use soft tissue grafts (either hamstring or quadriceps tendon) that require the soft tissue to be fixed to the tibial and femoral bone. For procedures using BTB grafts, only interference screws are used for anchoring the tendon or ligament of the graft to the bone. In contrast, for procedures that use soft tissue grafts, a variety of other devices are available to fixate the graft to the femoral and tibial tunnels. For every ACL/PCL repair procedure, both the tibia and femur are involved in fixating the new tissue between these two bones. Fixation to the tibia differs from femoral fixation with respect to the devices used and thus the ACL/PCL fixation market is composed of the tibial fixation and femoral fixation segments.
The knee is the most susceptible joint to pressure and injury in the human body, as its bending capacity is a result of complex interactions of rotational and extensional movements. The anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (ACL/PCL) connect the bones that form the knee, stabilizing joint movements and preventing the femur from sliding against the tibia and vice versa. Injuries to the ACL are quite common. These injuries can be caused by excessive use, physical impact or wear over time. Usually, during ACL/PCL reconstruction, the surgeon drills holes in the tibia in order to hold harvested patellar tendon with fixation devices such as staples and screws, thus reconstructing the ligament.
The full report suite on the U.S.European market for orthopedic biomaterials includes bone graft substitutes, which is represented by allografts, demineralized bone matrix and synthetic bone graft market. The report also includes hyaluronic acid viscosupplementation, orthopedic growth factors, orthopedic cell therapy, orthopedic cartilage repair and spinal machined bone allograft markets.
Articular cartilage is a connective tissue that lines the ends of bones in joints. It provides shock absorption within the joint and prevents abrasion from occurring to the articular surfaces of bone. Cartilage, in its various forms, is found in intervertebral discs, as the articular lining for joint surfaces and in the meniscal pads of the knees. All types of this tissue are poorly vascularized and, as proper healing requires adequate blood flow, cartilage is one of the slowest healing tissues of the body. Osteoarthritis is cumulative trauma that eventually wears away at cartilaginous surfaces, exposing the underlying bone to additional wear. There are few alternatives to osteobiologic cartilage repair. Damage to cartilage is difficult to treat because the tissue lacks blood supply and has limited capacity for self repair.
Bones are biologically active tissues that allow for movement, provide protection for the bodys other organs and serve as a production center for red and white blood cells. When bones are diseased or damaged, bone grafts and bone graft substitutes are used for bridging the resulting void or for providing the support that has been lost. The transplanted (or implanted) material provides a scaffold on which the body can generate new bone tissue, thereby repairing the skeletal system. The most common usage of such materials is for dental implants to replace missing teeth. Within the orthopedic field, however, spinal fusion surgeries are the largest driver of bone graft and bone graft substitute usage. Direct competition for bone graft substitutes comes from bone morphogenetic proteins which, although more expensive, are more effective at stimulating bone growth. Another source of competition is the rise of the motion preservation market for spinal surgery.
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are growth factors that induce the formation of bone after a fracture. In nature, these proteins have a critical role during embryonic development in the formation of the skeleton. There are twenty different BMPs that have been discovered thus far, of which only two, BMP-2 and BMP-7, have been commercialized as bone graft substitutes for use in specific orthopedic procedures. The commercial versions of these products are produced by recombinant genetic engineering, which results in a recombinant human protein. The recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) is marketed as a commercial product by Medtronic, Inc. and is called Infuse® (InductOS® in Europe), while BMP-7 has been commercialized by Stryker Inc. and is sold to Olympus under the name of OP-1®. Both molecules mediate the process of osteoblast differentiation. BMP-2 is capable of stimulating immature mesenchymal cells to form into bone, while BMP-7 has been shown to be capable of stimulating cartilage growth.
Industry Trends The cartilage repair market is seeing significantly more growth in the European countries than in the United States. Microfracture procedures are by far the most common type of operation to treat cartilage damage and account for up to 86% of all cartilage repair procedures in the United States. Microfracture involves the use of
In 2021, the Brazil dental bone graft substitutes (DBGS) market size is projected to reach $58 million, with the Synthetic Bone Graft market showing the highest growth. In spite of COVID19, the Brazilian market size is expected to increase over the forecast period to exceed $133 million in 2027. An ongoing trend in Brazil is
In 2021, the Mexico dental bone graft substitutes (DBGS) market size is projected to reach $12 million, with the Synthetic Bone Graft market showing the highest growth. In spite of COVID19, the Mexican market size is expected to increase over the forecast period to exceed $23 million in 2027. In Mexico, the dental bone graft
In 2021, the Argentina dental bone graft substitutes (DBGS) market size is projected to reach $2.2 million, with the Synthetic Bone Graft market showing the highest growth. In spite of COVID19, the Argentinian market size is expected to increase over the forecast period to exceed $4.8 million in 2027. In recent years, dental professionals in
Bone is a biologically active tissue and will regenerate whenever possible; however, there are instances where the damage is significant enough to warrant a scaffold to help rejoin the fissure or cavity. Bone grafting is a surgical procedure in which damaged bone is replaced with autograft tissue, allograft tissue or a bone graft substitute, which can be either synthetic or metal.
During an autograft procedure, tissue is harvested from the patients iliac crest, or possibly the distal femur or proximal tibia, and placed at the injury site. An allograft procedure uses donated cadaveric tissue. A grafting procedure using a bone graft substitute replaces human tissue with a synthetic or metal material. For the purposes of this report, metal replacement materials will be excluded, as they are not considered biomaterials.
Cellular allografts consist of allograft bone combined with adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells; or may refer to HCT/P (Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-based Product) comprised of viable cells within a cortical cancellous bone matrix. The viable cell bone matrix (VCBM) is a cryopreserved cancellous bone combined with demineralized cortical bone matrix. Their key characteristic in regards to bone repair is that they provide osteogenic properties.
Cartilage is a connective tissue that lines the ends of bones. It provides shock absorption within the joint and prevents abrasion from occurring to the articular surfaces of bone. Cartilage, in its various forms, is found in intervertebral discs, as the articular lining for joint surfaces and in the meniscal pads of the knees. All types of cartilage are poorly vascularized and, as proper healing requires adequate blood flow, are some of the slowest healing tissues of the body.
Osteoarthritis is cumulative trauma that eventually wears away at cartilaginous surfaces, exposing the underlying bone to additional wear. There are few alternatives for osteobiologic cartilage repair. Damage to cartilage is difficult to treat because the tissue lacks blood supply and has limited capacity for self-repair.