During an arthroscopic procedure, the damaged joint must be distended to allow for close inspection, increased surgical space and decreased bleeding during the operation. To achieve distension, fluid under continuous pressure is introduced into the joint through a cannula system. Joint distention is maintained by a fluid management system that can either be gravity or pump controlled.
Gravity is the simplest form of fluid management and consists of a liquid that is administered through a bag reservoir that is raised above the patient.
Drill guides are used during the reconstruction of the ACL and PCL. As the name implies, these devices are used for properly aligning the drill bit for the precise creation of tunnels and holes in boney surfaces. The knee is one of the most susceptible joints to pressure and injury in the human body, as its bending capacity is determined by a complex interaction of rotational and extensional movements. The anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (ACL/PCL) connect the bones that form the knee and stabilize joint movements to prevent the femur from sliding against the tibia and vice versa.
Injuries to the ACL are quite common. These injuries can be caused by excessive use, physical impact or wear over time. Usually, during ACL/PCL reconstruction, the surgeon drills holes in the tibia in order to hold harvested patellar tendon with fixation devices such as staples and screws, thus reconstructing the ligament.
The full report suite on the U.S. market for arthroscopic devices includes arthroscopes, disposable cannulas, hand instruments, fluid management disposables, shaver blades, radiofrequency (RF) probes, drill guide systems and disposables and suture passers. Power instruments are covered in an appendix.