Fetal and neonatal monitoring are related processes that are used at different times during the pregnancy and birthing cycles. Fetal monitoring occurs before and during the birthing process, and may be invasive or non-invasive. Neonatal monitoring occurs after birth. In addition, the parameters that are most important to be monitored vary depending on the stage of pregnancy. The growth and development of the fetus is important to monitor in antepartum situations in an attempt to detect complications such as intra-uterine growth retardation and other malformations. During labor, it is important to monitor fetal distress, and after birth, it is important to monitor vital signs, especially in infants with complications or illness.