A hemodialysis patient will be exposed to between 400 to 600 liters of water per week, through their dialysis treatments. To put this in perspective, a person with normal kidney function will be exposed to approximately 15 liters of water per week. To compound that fact, the intestinal barrier and stomach acid of a person offers protection from contaminated water better than the barrier imposed by the membrane of a dialyzer. Furthermore, a functioning kidney can further protect a normal individual by eliminating contaminants in the water; such protection is absent for a hemodialysis patient. As a result, the regulations that govern the purity of drinking water are not sufficient for patients on hemodialysis.