Arteriovenous (AV) is the most common method of access for hemodialysis treatment in patients that are suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD). AV access can be achieved via either AV fistula or AV graft. The fistula can be made in an extremity, typically in the forearm, where an artery and vein are surgically connected. This connection matures and strengthens over a period of four to six weeks. Native fistulae offer the best patency and durability, in addition to limiting complications such as post-dialysis bleeding and infection. A native fistula is the preferred access technique.