Counterpulsation therapy is used during surgery to provide temporary assistance to the heart. Counterpulsation refers to the inflation and deflation of an intra-aortic balloon synchronized with the heartbeat. The therapy increases the hearts output and the supply of oxygen-rich blood to the hearts coronary arteries while reducing the heart muscles workload and its oxygen demand. Counterpulsation is performed using intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) devices.
Atrial septal defect (ASD) and ventricular septal defect (VSD) are both conditions that involve incorrect blood flow within the heart. ASD is an opening in the muscular tissue that separates the sides of the hearts two upper chambers. Due to blood reflux, the heart is made to work more strenuously and below its optimal level. The condition is more common in females than males and tends to get worse with time. If left untreated, ASD can cause hypertension, heart arrhythmia and even a stroke. As with patent foramen ovale (PFO), ASD can be treated with open-heart surgery, but the operation is highly invasive. ASDs are found in approximately 1 in 1,500 live births and can lead to death if not treated in some cases.
The ECMO market includes disposable products and capital equipment. ECMO products have been in the market for a long time but have only recently started gaining traction. ECMO has experienced a reinvigoration due to positive reports and the stagnation of heart-lung machines in the market. The market is expected to grow as more surgeons view the technique as a better alternative to heart-lung machines.
Anastomosis assist devices (AADs) are used for joining two blood vessels, usually to restore continuity after resection, or to bypass an unresectable disease process. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) involves the construction of an alternative path to bypass a narrowed or occluded diseased coronary artery and restore blood flow from the aorta to an area beyond the occlusion. This is accomplished by using harvested veins or arteries as bypass grafts. This harvested vessel is usually the saphenous vein in the leg, the radial artery in the arm or the mammary artery from the chest wall. One end of the harvested vessel is then generally attached to the aorta (proximal anastomosis) and the opposite end is attached to the target coronary vessel on the heart (distal anastomosis). If the mammary artery is used as the bypass graft, it is dissected from the chest wall, leaving the blood inflow end in place, while the opposite dissected end is attached to the target vessel. This provides uninterrupted blood flow and eliminates the need for proximal anastomosis to the aorta. Regardless of the type of vessel used, once in place, these grafts provide sufficient blood flow to bypass the narrowed or occluded portion of the coronary artery.
Annuloplasty is used for restoring an optimal orifice area and shape, providing support and preventing further annular dilatation. Through disease or age, the tissue that supports the heart valves opening, the annulus, can weaken and lose its shape. To repair this condition, a device called an annuloplasty ring or band is sewn around the base of the heart valve to reshape it and give it support. An annuloplasty band or ring is made of durable plastic, metal or fabric and may be flexible or rigid. These rings and bands are designed to hold the natural shape, motion and flexibility of the annulus. An annuloplasty repair procedure usually involves open heart surgery requiring a median sternotomy, but may also be performed minimally invasively via keyhole surgical techniques or percutaneously.